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West Los Angeles College Raped Among the Native Women Article Essay

West Los Angeles College Raped Among the Native Women Article Essay

Question Description

Essay 1

Raped Among the Native Women

More than half of Native American women have or will be sexually assaulted in their lifetime. Raped of any kind is horrible within itself, but what makes the Native American women more vulnerable of such a crime? Maybe it’s because their attackers only get a “slap on the wrist” punishment for their crimes, or could it be because in the eyes of the rest of America Native Americans especially Native women are not viewed as equal and not important. Do you believe that these numbers would be so high if they were African American women? Better yet White American women? My guess No.

In some cases, in the south, the defendant (who is not white) is trailed by an all-white jury. In most of these cases the person is found guilty and everyone goes on with their life. It’s pretty peculiar when the tables are turn, such as a non-Native is on trial for a crime such as raped then it becomes a problem when the jury is all native. Senator Charles E. Grassley of Iowa, the top republican on the senate judiciary committee states “you’ve got to have a jury that is a reflection of society as a whole, and on an Indian reservation, it’s going to be made up of Indians, right?” That was his response to why it wouldn’t be a fair to prosecute a non-Native man of sexual crime against a Native woman on the reservation. Tribal courts were establishing for the Native Americans to operate their own justice systems. Justice systems are supposed to support and protect their own against natives and nonnatives as well. How can the justice system protect their women when in most cases the men aren’t even being put on trial? It seems as if the tribal judges are more lenient towards the non-natives because they (the judges) are under a close watch and no judge wants to hand the law to a non-native man without good standing evidence. The tribal courts were a precious tool given by congress. So, in a sense of a wat the tribal courts don’t want to blow this precious tool and independence over sexual assault for native women.

Non- native men or Native men, both can be sexual predators, both take advantages of Native women and young girls, however more than 80% of these sexual assaults are committed by non-native men. Most Native women are too distraught to report rape. Most likely because 67% of non-native men defendants failed to be prosecuted. Because of these staggering high numbers against the prosecutors these men or should we say lack of, makes it that much easier for the assaults to continue. I mean think about it, if you commit a crime and was never brought to justice for it wouldn’t you keep on doing the crime? In August 2017 a non-native man Justin Schneider, kidnapped, strangled to unconsciousness and raped a Native girl was found guilty of these chargers. You would think that finally there was going to be justice, right? No! In fact, Schneider was ONLY sentence to two years in jail, with serving only one after a year on house arrest. An outrage Michelle Demmert a chief justice for the Tlingit and Hida tribes and a legal consultant stated, “We just are not valued as human beings.” (Alaska Natives to Congress: Expand Violence Against Women Act”) That’s what makes it so easy for non-native men to keep raping native women. The reservation has become “hunting grounds” for sexual predators knowing that little or punishment will come to them. Which makes it really sad and very unsafe for the Native American Woman.

Native American woman are not only sexual pray to nonnative men, but also native men as well. In some cases, their own husbands or partners can be the accuser. In one case on the Blackfeet Reservation in Montana a Native American Woman was held against her will, beaten, sexually assaulted, and choked until she passed out. Successfully, the woman was able to escape and informed the police. What’s so sad and dishearten about this case, there are many more that are very similar or even worst. Some women are even raped by their husband or partners for denying them sex. To some of the native men it doesn’t matter if the woman is tired or is simply not in the mood if she denies her partner then he will forcibly take it. In some cases, after being raped the men will go as far as to beat his wife or partner. Which can get easily out of control and lead to death.

With all the sexual abuse that happens to the Native American woman, you would hope that they have the proper access to emergency contraception. Sadly, they don’t, more than half of Indian Health Services fail to provide or offer such things. In some cases, where the services are provided still may be a challenge getting there. Some of these facilities are hundreds of miles away, which makes it that much harder for the women to get the proper help that they need. If the women can’t get to the facilities on time, then they may be forced to carry and have a baby by someone who rape them. And sure, they will love their child, but it will be a constant reminder that they were forced to have that child with someone who sexually assaulted them, wheatear it was a husband, partner, or non-native. Life on the reservation is already hard enough and jobs are very limited, with the new edition of an unwanted baby it makes the Native women that much in a tight place and with no help from the father makes it that much harder. Native American woman have no support or help from the tribal courts or the government and with the Indian Health Services being far out within the women’s availability makes it that much harder.

It’s not just native women that are being assaulted, its young girls as well. A ten-year-old girl was found murder outside her Alaskan tribe. Her grieving father shares a heart-felt message on Facebook stating, “I want to dig her grave so badly just to be with her.” He had a nickname for his precious daughter “Dimples”. Fortunately, a 41-year-old man was charged with the kidnaping, rape, and murder of this young girl. Far too many times this same story plays out with thin the Native community of these young girls and women. In this case justice was served but it doesn’t take away the pain that these women and their families go through. (Alaska Native to Congress: Expand Violence Against Women Act)

With all the horrible sexual assault that comes from within the Native community there’s always an empowerment outcome that comes from these heavy-hearted stories. Powwows are a very popular tradition in the Native American culture. At many Powwows Native Americans sing, dance, joining new friendships, meeting new people, and really celebrating the Native American culture and ways. At this particular Powwow in Minneapolis Native American wear red shawls to honor the survivors of the sexual abuse. The shawl represents nurturing, flow toward the earth. The red represents the blood that was lost during the acts of these crimes. At these powwows it’s not only the women that come together, it’s the native men and even children that come together as one and acknowledge the women that suffer. The women come together and speak on their experiences or share experiences of love ones who could not get the courage to share their story. The women also dance and sings songs together. The men who are there in support of their native women may also share their story as well. Some may have witnessed the sexual abuse or even someone close to them such as a mother, sister, cousin, or even friend have been victims of sexual abuse. As a symbol of their support the men are able to wear purple and teal arm bands in an effort to end this violence.

Unfortunately, sexual abuse is way too common in everyday life, however in the Native American community more than half of the women have or will be sexually assaulted in her lifetime. Not only do these women have a lack of justice because the justice system was formed but not to protect them the way they would like. They also have to face being sexual victims to non-native men which 67% of the time they are not brought to justice. They also have to deal with their own native men that are supposed to be there to protect and love them but instead become sexual victims to them as well. In some cases, they are beaten and raped, some may get away, but others have failed victims to their abuser. With the Indians Health Services, they may or may not be able to get the proper emergency contraception due to the distance of these facilities being over hundreds of miles away from the tribes which forces them to keep an unwanted child. One of the saddest parts to these stories is that young girls are also being targeted as sexual prey. The fortunate news is that although these women suffer by the hands of these sexual predators, they have found a sense of community at the some of the powwows where the women rejoice, dance and even sign while wearing red and purple shawls and the men where purple and teal arm bands in effort to end the sexual violence against the Native woman.

Essay 2



Misogyny and Patriarchal Dominance on Native American Women and Sexual Violence

In this 21st century, feminism has become prevalent in many countries. This movement aided issues such as abuse and sexual violence to women. In the United States, it was believed that women were mostly abused by patriarchal society. As another related concern, it was also tackled how Native American Women are more likely to be abused than any other race. The cases of sexual violence are linked to the following: alcohol or substance abuse, marital status, cultural and tribe affiliations, and history of abuse among the victims. In these issues, sexual violence is rooted in misogyny and male dominance in society.

Weaver (2008) wrote the article regarding the colonial context of violence which included the cases of Native American Women. According to the author’s cited sources, Native women have a probability of 2.5 times of sexual violence in comparison to other women. Additional sources were cited with the statistics of 1:3 rape cases for these subjects. While these rape cases were particularly violent, Weaver also quoted that the rape behavior of the perpetrators on Native women was more violent than in other cases such as the use of physical sources. The cited source, Amnesty International, stated that 50% of the Native women obtained physical injuries in their conducted survey.

Bryant-Davis et al. (2009) cited that 39 percent of sexual assault cases were identified the urban American Indian women as the victims of these incidents. The National Violence Against

Women Survey, or NVAWS, indicated that 34 percent of Native American women had experienced a completed or attempted rape incident in comparison to other races: 6.8 percent of Asian American women. 17.7 percent of white women, and 18.8 percent of African American women.

Yuan et al. (2006) stated that the rape cases for Indigenous American women (14 percent) were higher than the general population for a similar incident (10 percent) according to the NVAW results. The statistics were alarming for the scientific community since it was direct evidence of the high probability for Native American women to be sexually assaulted than any other race (Bubar 2009).
Alcohol dependence. Kirk-Provencher et al. (2020) linked alcohol to the sexual assault cases on selected American Indian youth. According to their reviewed studies, the dependence on this substance was commonly observed among Native Americans. The same subjects were also evaluated to start drinking at a much younger age (as early as 13 years old) in comparison to other races. These alcohol-related disparities were traced back to the “historical trauma” that was derived from the destruction and colonization of the Native American culture.

This trauma was also linked to the following cultural-based activities, namely the sweats or pow wows, which were used for alternative alcohol rehabilitation. By these cases, American Indian youth was found out to be at higher risk of the following issues: car accidents, violations, traffic incidents, work or school-related issues, debts, and gambling that lead to financial problems, relationship issues with family and friends, and others.

Yuan (2006) also stated that alcohol dependence is a significant factor for the risk of sexual assault among Native American women. In terms of community, the author cited that the women from these tribes, who were allowed to procure and sell to customers, were most likely to be

sexually assaulted by males compared to other peers. These studies concluded that individual alcohol dependence and alcohol consumption, either by these victims or the perpetrators, impose an increasing risk on American Indian women.
Marital status. Yuan et al. (2006) examined the cases of women who were involved in cohabitation or separation (divorce or unofficial) and these authors observed that these individuals were also at high risk of experiencing assault in their lives. The results were also compared to the observations for Native Americans with similar situations and these people have the high possibility of having traumatic experiences with their partners.

Similar findings were also observed with the other races who had undergone cohabitation, widowhood, or any separation of these individuals from their relationships. The marital status was the main concern of the authors since the patriarchal society had an overall perspective on these women: more vulnerable than married women. The male perpetrators would think that they can take advantage of those victims since no one would ever protect them. This is unlike other married women who were most likely to be protected by their husbands if these men were actually taking care of their wives.
Cultural and tribal affiliation. In terms of cultural context, the researchers correlated the victims’ sexual assault cases to these issues. Bryant-Davis et al. (2009) stated that they measured the cultural affiliation of these individuals through their self-awareness of their cultural identity and the location of their household to their community of their tribe. Based on these evaluations, American Indian women with their greater awareness of their tribal identity were proved to at higher risk of being exposed to sexual violence. Moreover, these individuals of a similar population who were reported to be residing within or in physical proximity to their tribal lands were evaluated with a low risk of sexual assault. The complexity of cultural affiliation, as a

recommendation, required further studies. Even today, the relationship is still unknown between these Native American women and the strength of their cultural identity in their tribes.

Yuan et al. (2006) suggested the possibilities that were linked to the tribal identity of these sexual assault victims who were Native American women. The authors provided explanations for these cases which were significant differences in tribal rules and services for the victims, and the handling of the crime cases. Other issues were the tribal disparities that indicate the contrasting results of sexual assault of the Native American women versus the general population, and the tribal differences which were hidden during the case proceedings and reports. The factors that were also linked to sexual violence on women were the dominance of the patriarchal household, male conservativeness and control, and socioeconomic issues.
History of victimization. Bryant-Davis et al. (2009) cited the history of traumatic childhood experiences of the Native American women who were also victims of sexual violence by mostly male perpetrators (father, male relative, or male friend). The authors cited the references that the victims who were a survivor of a “childhood sexual abuse or rape” would have a higher risk of sexual re-victimization, or the term for the future incidents where the victims would encounter similar traumatic situations. Based on their survey, around 15 percent to 79 percent of the female sexual abuse victims were also raped in their adulthood. In the provided list, around 30 Native American women were recorded to have previous child sexual abuse cases and re-victimization cases as adults.

In general studies of American Indians, researchers have found evidence that this population has higher levels of alcohol abuse and dependence, suicide rates, and mental distress than the general population. According to Bryant-Davis et al. (2009), the victims of sexual violence who were identified as Native American women would experience the following issues after the

incident: substance or drug abuse, post-traumatic stress disorder, body injuries, and risk to HIV disease depression and suicidal behavior.

As of today, H.R.1585 or Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2019 is the latest bill that has already been approved by the U.S. House of Representatives and has currently being reviewed by the U.S. Senate. It was introduced on the 7th of March 2019 and reported on the 27th of March in the same year. The scope of the bill indicated the following policies: modification and reauthorization through FY2024 programs and other activities that were covered under the Violence Against Women Act. This bill was issued to prevent the incidents and also resolve the cases of domestic violence, rape cases and assaults, dating violence, and stalking behavior. The bill was also including the authorization of new programs for the modifications to federal firearms laws and providing security to the victims of these incidents.
Conclusion

The research studies of physical assault and sexual violence among Native American women were indicating similar findings. The women from these tribes were most likely to be sexually assaulted in comparison to other races such as White women, African Americans, and Asian Americans. From the cited references, the risk factors for the sexual assault on Native American women are attributed to the possibility of alcohol dependence, marital status, cultural and tribal affiliation, and history of childhood abuse leading to sexual re-victimization. As an assessment, the researchers concluded that the incidents of sexual violence were committed by male perpetrators who were non-Indigenous. Hence, the misogyny and the men asserting their dominance among women were also the main factors for the occurrence of these sexual incidents. Other issues such as detailed information are also currently studied in present times.

Essay 3



The way that COVID-19 has impacted tribal communities revealed long-standing inequities with regard to healthcare funding and administration on reservations,have managed to not acknowledge Native American communities through this Pandemic.The impact of Covid-19 on tribal community need to be acknowledge and should have more advocates putting awareness into Congress and Senate so they can provide more healthcare, more amenities and resources that can be reachable for affordable to free health care services for communities that are heavily impacted that have little to none resources within the reservations.

. In recent months everyone has either been in a stay at home order implemented by the governors of each city or have been continuing to work with PPE (personal protective equipment), that is a luxury to have because we have a lot of resources that can be provided to us immediately if needed, but in the tribal commi=unities to find any resource is like a needle in a haystack because it is difficult for them to get the help they need, an article in the AAAS(American Association for the Advancement of science) written by Lizzie Wade ha a huge statement that relates to underfunding in tribal communities,states “COVID-19 data on Native Americans is ‘a national disgrace.’ This scientist is fighting to be counted”Abigail Echo-Hawk an activist and director for the UIHI (urban indian health institute and chief research officer for the Seattle Indian Health Board, has been advocating for indegenous people to get the proper help for healthcare basic necessities. She expresses how seeked helped for prenatal care and was faced with “That was very traumatic for me … I was treated in a way that a lot of people of color are, and that is with disdain, discrimination, and outright racism. And it inhibited my care,” she says”; imagine getting treated with racism and you’re seeking help. Echo-Hawk says “The system of oppression in the United States, “has built a perfect environment to kill us in a pandemic”. Native American Indians and Alaska Natives have higher rates of obesity, diabetes, asthma, and heart disease than white Americans, as well as higher rates of suicide.With high risk health within the tribal commuiies contracting this virus is deadly because the symptoms and the existing health conditions of they population will decreased dramitically since there isnt enough funding for the healthcare system in the community.Surveys conducted by Abaigail shows that American Indians and Alaska Natives make up about 2% of the U.S. population , eventhough Natice Americans and Alaskan Natives are often left out of national data. “I see being eliminated in the data as an ongoing part of the continuing genocide of American Indians and Alaska Natives. If you eliminate us in the data, we no longer exist,”. Still not getting recognized and acknowledged by the government is part of the problem because they are still not being in a way colonized because they are making people “forget” about their existence and problems they have been facing for years.

While still not getting acknowledged by the government somehow the numbers and data surveys the CDC has collected based on the infection rates of Covid-19 in tribal communities are increasingly scary, they are getting affected and losing members of the community at a high rate. According to the CDC updated on 8/9/2020 “AI/AN individuals were in people under 18 years of age (12.9 percent AI/AN; 4.3 percent white), and a smaller percentage of cases were among AI/AN 65 years or older (12.6 percent AI/AN; 28.6 percent white)”. With little to none resources nearby them, the spike of the virus is only going to increase extremely high because of resources not being available to them. By getting the CDC acknowledging that tribal communities need help they are trying to get more funding , so that Congress can fund more money; the asking amount is $200 million for Covid-19 “preparedness and response activities, including surveillance, epidemiology, laboratory capacity, infection control, and mitigation.”, Congress passing a bill much needed will benefit all the tribal communities. The resources being provided to them are either 2 hours away,the communities are being affected because the government still doesn’t give them the recognition they deserve and with the pandemic going on it makes it harder to make their voice heard because of new restrictions. According to The Harvard Gazette “For Native Americans, COVID-19 is ‘the worst of both worlds at the same time’ by Stan Lawrimore provides insight into the effects the virus has had on income, public safety, and social services. Joseph Kalt co-director of the Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development. Is seeking for more funding from congress he wrote an emergency memo explaining the importance for more funding “the economic effects the pandemic was having on Native American communities, and urging him to extend federal help quickly. Under the $2 trillion Coronavirus, Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act, tribal governments are set to receive $8 billion to respond to the public health crisis. Tribes have imposed stay-at-home orders, curfews, and checkpoints to prevent the virus from spreading, and have distributed posters and materials about COVID-19 produced by the John Hopkins Center for American Indian Health”. The lack of help the government has poised to tribal communities is a disgrace because people “outsiders” need to acknowledge that this community needs help and need to get advocates to press harder onto congress for more funding.

Native American communities need more resources and more funding for reservations to stop the coronavirus from spreading and more information to the reservations on how to slow down the virus. According to the IDSA (The Indian Health Service (IHS), an agency within the Department of Health and Human Services) “Native Americans made up 18% of the deaths and 11% of the cases compared to 4% of the total population in Arizona; 57% of the cases compared to 9% of the total population in New Mexico; and 30% of the cases compared to 2% of the total population in Wyoming (Figure 1).vii”, the rates of Native Americans is higher within tribal communities than the city of Arizona, and that’s due to the already existing condition some residents have already and while contracting this virus can be deadly the resources are crucial so that anyone can get the right treatment they deserve within minutes and not hours; “many of the rural hospitals upon which these communities rely for inpatient care do not have the large numbers of intensive care beds, ventilators, and staffing required to care for severely ill COVID-19 patients.” Congress and Senate should acknowledge the fact that tribal communities need more help there than let’s say in New York because they don’t have the equipment or testing that others are getting within walking distance and faster. Not only the lack of health resources and information about the virus is not accessible because they don’t have internet access as well so the little information they might be getting might not be as updated and need to get more informed to protect themselves since the government doesn’t want to help them.

Many disease have affected Native American communities throughout years but this pandemic has increasingly done more damage since any plague.In the Washington post Indian country were residents suffer disproportionately from disease are bracing for coronavirus by Dana Hedgepeth ,Darryl Fears and Gregory Scruggs , focuses on what is needed for travel communities in order to contain the coronavirus within the reservations.Native communities are being forced to use gyms as hospitals and hospital beds for patients that may be suffering from coronavirus symptoms. Although the rates are high within the Indian country They are trying their best to deal with whatever resources they have available. The Cherokee nation 11 people have tested positive in the Navajo nation 321 tested positive that is 54 cases. Day and 13 deaths, they are torn between the elders or saving the young. Coronavirus has spiked in the United States fast but experts say the “5 million people who are American Indian or Alaska native are especially vulnerable and can wipe out a huge amount of their generation”. Imagine losing people you love let alone wipe out your identity as Native Americans because a pandemic is killing them can be much torutre and confusion within members of the community because they have to keep what they remembered of their culture and tradition alive so it won’t die as well.Native Americans live in small houses were virus can easily spread between their families, because they don’t have the luxury of amenities like in the city. In their community they lack electricity or running water and are making the cases spread faster within the communities. With high risk of cancer, asthma, heart disease these are free of complications that the coronavirus could easily kill a lot of people in the reservations because they lack health healthcare. The Navajos are trying to prevent what happened in 1918 flu and all the last meaning of ones they survived the virus with a little to none healthcare help. They are confident they will survive this pandemic like they have survived the virus in 1918. Hospitalization rates and characteristics of patient hospitalized when they were Terry come from coronavirus this disease by Lindsay Kim , Shikha Gary March ,2020 the SARS-cov-2 (Covid-19) first detected in December 2019 approximately 1.3 million cases have been reported and they have been over 300,000 deaths in the United States. Rates are high among adults aged 65 years and older; the percentage is 13.8 compared to 12% out of patience with underlying conditions. The ones getting more affected our elders with underlying medical health a lot of the symptoms they are feeling now can be related to coronavirus but taking care of them disinfecting everything and washing your hands really good can prevent from a lot of people dying.Coronavirus has brought up how well you’re hygiene is and how much you care for those that have conditions that can easily contract the virus, Although a lot of people go against state rules to wear protective gear and sanitation regularly they cannot implement much rules that can save healthy and unhealthy people from dying. Coronavirus has taken a lot from everyone no matter their social status,race,ethnicity the virus doesn’t forgive anyone that contracts it and if you survive it you will be left with even more complications that you might have already.

In conclusion the way that COVID-19 has impacted tribal communities revealed long-standing inequities with regard to healthcare funding and administration on reservations,have managed to not acknowledge Native American communities through this Pandemic.The impact of Covid-19 on tribal community need to be acknowledge and should have more advocates putting awareness into Congress and Senate so they can provide more healthcare, more amenities and resources that can be reachable for affordable to free health care services for communities that are heavily impacted that have little to none resources within the reservations.Lastly more advocacy and transparency needs to be brought to national attention because they drive our help now more than ever.


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