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Wayne State University Immunology Active Phospholipase Questions

Wayne State University Immunology Active Phospholipase Questions

Question Description

I’m working on a biology multi-part question and need an explanation to help me understand better.

The worksheet has a total of 50 points. Each question is worth 2 points. For the multiple-choice questions, please highlight the correct answers. The multiple-choice questions may have more than one correct answer. Please do not remove the questions from your submitted worksheet.

1. When comparing the health of patients with a C3 deficiency or a C9 deficincy:

a. the patient lacking C9 has more pyogenic bacterial infections

b. the patient lacking C3 has more pyogenic bacterial infections

c. both patients die at birth

d. both patients are likely to need antibiotics at some point

e. the patient lacking C9 is more susceptible to influenza

2. Prostaglandin synthesis requires which of the following:

a. exudate

b. active phospholipase A2 (PLA2)

c. phagocytosis

d. arachidonic acid

e. COX (1 or 2)

3. Prostaglandins

a. can act as mediators of inflammation

b. help protect the gastric mucosal lining

c. directly kill bacteria by cell lysis

d. can be secreted by macrophages

e. can be made in response to C3a or C5a binding to receptors on mast cells

4. Which of the following immune mediators bind to G protein-coupled receptors:

a. C3a

b. prostaglandins


d. IL-1b

e. IL-8 (aka CXCL-8)

5. Which of the following contribute to localized acute inflammation:

a. increased vascular permeability

b. pain

c. neutrophil chemotaxis

d. vasodilaton

e. fever

6. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) do which of the following:

a. inhibit PLA2

b. inhibit COX1/2

c. inhibit complement

d. inhibit synthesis of prostaglandins

e. cause problems with the GI tract, including ulcers

7. Signaling pathways started by C3a and C5a increase the levels of which of the following proteins:

a. COX-1

b. COX-2

c. TLR4

d. LPA2

e. RIG-1

8. Which of the following are steps of leukocyte extravasation:

a. opsonization

b. trans-endothelial migration

c. lysis

d. activation/arrest

e. rolling

9. Activation of vascular epithelium (not the activation step of extravasation):

a. can be caused by IL-1b and TNF-a

b. results in increased expression of selectins on the endothelial cells

c. results in increased expression of mucin-like CAMS on endothelial cells

d. is needed for neutrophil extravasation

e. results in decreased expression of immunoglobulin-like CAMS

10. The activation step of extravasation involves:

a. rolling of neutrophils

b. clustering and conformational change in selectins

c. clustering and conformational change in integrins

d. signaling by CXCL-8 (e.g. IL-8)

e. C3b

11. Phagocytosis involves:

a. cytoskeleton rearrangement

b. ligands binding to phagocytotic receptors

c. cell division

d. fusion of phagosomes with lysosomes

e. apoptosis

12. Neutrophils can remove and/or kill bacteria by which of the following mechanisms:

a. lysosomal degradation of material in phagosomes

b. release of granules containing antimicrobial factors

c. NETosis

d. reactive oxygen and nitrogen species

e. release of IL-1

13. What do neutrophil granules contain?

a. elastases

b. perforin

c. lactoferrin

d. IL-1

e. phox enzymes

14. NETosis:

a. is one of the ways neutrophils fight infections

b. is triggered by PAMPS and DAMPS

c. does not kill the neutrophil

d. will contribute to the formation of pus

e. releases DNA from the neutrophil

15. Phagocytosis involves:

a. changes in the actin cytoskeleton

b. binding of receptors on the phagocyte to opsonins

c. secretion of inflammatory cytokines

d. binding of receptors on phagocytes to PAMPS

e. degradation of phagosome contents by enzymes in lysosomes

16. Phox enzymes:

a. reside in the membrane of phagosomes

b. reside in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane

c. convert O2 into O2-

d. are responsible for the respiratory burst

e. are always active in cells

17. Binding of viral PAMPs to specific PRRs in plasmacytoid dendritic cells results in:

a. increased synthesis of selectins

b. activation of NF-kB

c. activation of IRF3 and IRF7

d. secretion of IFN-a and IFN-b

e. changes in surface integrins

18. IFN-a and IFN-b:

a. are part of the innate immune response to viruses

b. are secreted by cells infected with virus

c. activate NK cells

d. activate a JAK-STAT type of signaling pathway

e. cause neutrophils to be recruited to the site of infection

19. NK cells

a. recognize and kill altered-self cells

b. are phagocytes

c. are lymphocytes

d. kill cells with increased MHC I peptide levels

e. kill target cells by apoptosis

20. NK cell granules contain:

a. perforin

b. lactoferrin

c. granzymes

d. elastases

e. complement

21. Name three cell types that can perform phagocytosis.

22,23 (4 points). TNF-a causes vascular endothelial cells to increase the levels of selectin expressed on the inside wall of the blood vessel. What specifically does this do, and how does this help get rid of bacteria that have invaded the nearby extracellular space?

24. How do activated macrophages differ from resting macrophages?

25. If you inhibit neutrophil from leaving the blood and entering tissues, is there any other part of our innate immune system that will work to limit/remove a bacterial infection? If so, identify it/them. Without neutrophils, are the other parts of the innate immune system that you identified sufficient to prevent a person from becoming sick from pyogenic bacterial infections?

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