Question 1. In the class, we discussed HIV-1 capsid, a metastable megadalton assembly that protects the viral genome and is responsible for the spread of viral infection. To prevent retroviral infections, however, their mammalian hosts express a variety of proteins, termed host-restriction factors. One of the most well-known restriction factor in this evolutionary tug of war against retroviruses is a protein called TRIM5α. Use the accompanying manuscript as a guide, Ganser- Pornillos and Pornillos, Nature Reviews Microbiology 2019 (Figs. 3 and 4), to summarize the mechanism with which this protein attempts to nullify retroviral infection. Also comment on why this protein is not that successful in preventing the spread of HIV-1. (page 553 of this manuscript).
(400 words; 20 points)
Question 2. We talked about rabies in the class – one of the most fatal diseases known to mankind. Summarize the life cycle of rabies virus using the accompanying manuscript as a guide, Schnell et al., Nature Reviews Microbiology 2010 (Fig. 3). Note: I am looking for a general summary and not precise details of each step. (300 words; 15 points)
Question 3. A process known as “antigenic drift” is responsible for blunting the effect of vaccine against influenza. In addition, influenza A, only known strain to cause pandemics, employs a process called “antigenic shift”. Briefly explain these two processes. In addition, using the accompanying manuscript as a guide, Kim et al., Viral Immunology, 2018 (page 175-176, Fig. 1), summarize the strategies that are used by influenza virus to evade host-immune response.
(400 words; 15 points)
The material to answer these questions are provided below.
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