I’m stuck on a Psychology question and need an explanation.
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(1) pick a personality concept and measure, (2) find and download theoriginal paper in which the scale was developed, (3) find an empirical paper that uses thescale, and (4) respond to questions about these papers.
Questions 1 – 6 refer to the original scale development article. Questions 7 and 8 refer tothe empirical article that uses the scale.
- What aspect(s) of personality does this scale aim to measure? In other words, what isthe psychological construct that the researchers theorize about? How would you describeit in about a sentence—clearly explain the concept to a non-expert. The authors likelyprovide a definition of the construct in text that you can use for reference. Pleaseparaphrase this definition and provide the page number. (10 points)For example: The construct grit reflects an individual’s tendency to maintain interest ina goal and sustain effort towards a goal (Duckworth & Quinn, 2009, p. 166).
- Is this scale unidimensional or multidimensional [see paragraph at end of documentfor more information on dimensionality]? In other words, is the construct composed ofmultiple separable sub-scales or factors? If so, it is multidimensional. (5 points)For example: The grit scale is multidimensional, composed of two dimensions or factorslabeled perseverance of effort and consistency of interest. Separate scales are computedfor each subdimension, as well as an overall grit score composed of both subdimensionscombined.
- How many items make up the scale? If multidimensional, how many items perdimension? Provide at least two example items. If multidimensional, provide at least twoexample items per dimension. (10 points)For example: The scale is composed of eight items, with four items referring toconsistency of interest (e.g., “I often set a goal but later choose to pursue a different one”;“I have been obsessed with a certain idea or project for a short time but later lostinterest.”) and four items referring to perseverance of effort (e.g., “I finish whatever Ibegin”; “Setbacks don’t discourage me”).
- What is the response scale? Please describe how participants would respond to items,including the number of response options, and the anchors (i.e., what a “1” refers to, whata “5” or “7” refers to). (10 points)For example: Participants indicated their agreement with the items on a 5-point likertscale (1 = disagree strongly; 5 = agree strongly).
- For two of the example items you provided above, what does a high score mean withregard to the construct? That is, if a person answers “5” (or “7”), what does that meanabout them? (10 points)For example: A high score on the item “I often set a goal but later choose to pursue adifferent one”, indicating that a person strongly agrees with this item, would indicate thatthe person is low in grit (that is, this item is reverse-scored [NOTE: your scale may nothave reverse-scored items, but keep an eye out for them]). A high score on the item “Ifinish whatever I begin”, indicating that they strongly agree, would indicate that theperson is high in grit.
- Bonus: what is/are the Cronbach’s alpha(s)/reliability score for each part of this scale? (1bonus mark) (2 points EC)For example: For Study 1, which collected data from multiple samples, alphas rangedfrom .73 to .79 on the Consistency of Interest subscale. Alphas ranged from .60 to .78 onthe Perseverance of Effort subscale.
- Compare the definition of the construct from the scale development paper to thedefinition given in the empirical paper. Do the definitions match? In what ways dothey differ, if any? (5 points)
- In the empirical paper, what was one key finding using the scale? Describe andexplain to a non-expert with words—no numbers. You can use the results section ordiscussion section for this. (10 points)For example: Soldiers higher in grit were more likely to complete the Army SpecialOperations Forces (ARSOF) selection course. Grit was positively related to age,indicating that older people are higher in grit. Grit was unrelated to general intelligence.
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