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You must have a section entitled Data and Analysis (7) in which you list and describe the raw experimental datacollected during the experiment. Include any tables, graphs, results of best fits etc. as is appropriate. Describe howquantities were calculated from your raw data. If it is necessary to show a formula employed during the experimentthen you may simply leave some space and write the equation in by hand as is shown by Equation 3 in the samplelab report.Finally, you should have a section entitled Results and Conclusions (8) in which you state the main result(s) of theexperiment and compare your result(s) to the accepted or theoretical value(s) (if available) by computing a percentdiscrepancy. State what you consider to be the most likely causes of these discrepancies. If possible discuss thesepotential reasons for error quantitatively by calculating (or estimating) how much effect each source of uncertaintymay have on the final result. An example of this type of reasoning is shown in the sample lab report at (9).Data Tables (10) may be incorporated inline into your lab report or may be placed at the end (as in the example) ifit is more convenient. Data tables should be identified with a descriptive header. Each column should have aheading that describes the physical quantity that is recorded in the column. The column heading should also showthe units of the physical quantity and the uncertainty in the quantity (if known). Numerical values recorded in thetable should be rounded to the appropriate number of significant digitsGraphs (11) may be incorporated inline into your lab report or may be placed at the end (as in the example) if it ismore convenient. Graphs should be prepared on the computer. You should adhere to the following guidelines whenpreparing a graph.1. Title – Every graph should have a title which identifies the graph by a number (i.e. Graph 1) along withsome descriptive text that tells exactly what is plotted (i.e. Velocity vs. Time) and perhaps the purposeof the graph (i.e. Determination of Acceleration and Initial Velocity).2. Axes and Axes Labels – Both axes should be labeled with descriptive text that tells the name of thephysical quantity that is plotted on that axis and the units of that physical quantity (i.e. Velocity (cm/s)).Numerical values of the physical quantity should be printed at the major tick marks.3. Size and Clarity – All graphs should be printed at a size that is sufficiently large so that the informationcan be easily read. Typically this means to make your graphs occupy most of the printed page. Choose axes limits so that the region of interest occupies most of the graph. Choose font sizes that aresufficiently large to be easily readable.4. Graph Modes – You should adjust the graph mode so that individual data points are shown with someform of marker or with dots. Data values should never be connected with a jagged line. Showrelationships that represent the best fit to data using lines with no markers.5. Annotation – Whenever a best fit is performed on a graph, the results of the fit should be clearlydisplayed on the graph. In the case of a linear fit one should show the values of the slope and the y intercept. Be sure to include also the associated uncertainties and units. It is a good idea to include ameasure of the goodness of fit (either the chi-squared value or the linear correlation coefficient – bothdiscussed later) on the graph. Also, if possible, describe the physical significance of the slope andintercept as is done in the graph above. Finally, be sure to place your name (and your partner’s names ifappropriate) and the date on the graph.6. Uncertainty Bars – Whenever the uncertainties of individual data values are known they should berepresented on the graph with uncertainty bars (often called error bars) as is shown in the above graph.
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