I’m working on a history discussion question and need a sample draft to help me understand better.
This week, we will move further East to explore more of Asia. You are reading the sections in your book on Ancient India and Ancient China (usually Ch 3 & 4). We will cover Japan later in the class. You will be learning about scholarly arguments (thesis statements) regarding the language, religion, and culture of India and the philosophies and religions of China. I hope you will come to recognize the relevant leaders, groups, philosophers, and teachers. from India and China, as well as an understanding of their contributions to the growth of civilizations in India and China. Important events and their consequences will also be explored as we continue to look at cause and effect in world history. I am giving you several choices this week, as the chapters are expansive.
Option A: I know some of you are interested in linguistics and the expansion of people outwards. In the chapter on India, we learn about the Aryo (Aryan) people, an Indo-European group whose periodic migrations brought the exchange of the Indo-European root language, horses, patriarchal systems, and iron technology to many regions, including India. If you pick this option, read a bit more about the Indo-Europeans and their ties to many cultures, (Links to an external site.)then discuss the importance of these people and the consequences of their expansion. Please also respond to one other person as normal.
Option B: The Harappa/Mohenjo-Daro (Links to an external site.)civilization began along the Indus River. It is known also as the Indus Valley Civilization. (Links to an external site.)In this option, please describe this civilization. Describe their technologies, developments, innovations, and art. What are the challenges of learning more about them?
Option C: After reading, explore the Rig Veda and other sacred texts. B (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.)rowse through some (not all – just a small sample will do) of the hymns presented in this translation. What exactly is the Rig Veda? What can it tell us about the culture that eventually replaced the Harappan society? How would you describe the Aryans based on our cd text andthe Vedas? How does the religious imagery in these hymns compare to what we read about in Egyptian, Mesopotamian, and/or prehistoric religions (cave art/Venus period)? Remember to include any relevant information from our text book, podcasts, and websites. Respond to one of your fellow students.
Option D: During the period of the Seven Warring States at the end of the Zhou Dynasty [1027 256 BCE], China continued to prosper in spite of the intense fighting between the States. Various Chinese philosophers offered different solutions as to how to restore social and political order out of the chaos of the times. Using the information from our text, the quotes from Confucius, Lao-Tzu, and a Legalist scholar included here, and your knowledge, write an entry in which you: Identify and discuss the views of the three major schools of philosophy (Confucian, Daoism, Legalist) (Links to an external site.)of an ideal people and society and how one might “construct” or achieve such an ideal. Explain how each major school of philosophy presented a different vision of the ideal ruler and person. Remember to include any relevant information from our text book, podcasts, and websites. Respond to one of your fellow students.
- Quote from Confucius: Lead the people with governmental measures and regulate them with laws and punishment, and they will avoid wrongdoing but will have no sense of honor and shame. Lead them with virtue and regulate them by the rules of propriety, and they will have a sense of shame and, moreover, set themselves right. [2:3] Chi Kang asked Confucius about government, saying, What do you think of killing the wicked and associating with the good? Confucius replied, In your government what is the need of killing? If you desire what is good, the people will be good. The character of a ruler is like wind and that of the people is like grass. In whatever direction the wind blows, the grass always bends. [12:19] Confucius said, If a ruler sets himself right, he will be followed without his command. If he does not set himself right, even his commands will not be obeyed. [13:6] Excerpts from The Analects of Confucius.
- Lao-Tzu Quote: NOT exalting worth keeps the people from rivalry. Not prizing what is hard to procure keeps the people from theft. Not to show them what they may covet is the way to keep their minds from disorder. Therefore the Sage, when he governs, empties their minds and fills their bellies, weakens their inclinations and strengthens their bones. His constant object is to keep the people without knowledge and without desire, or to prevent those who have knowledge from daring to act. He practises inaction, and nothing remains ungovernedHe who respects the State as his own person is fit to govern it. He who loves the State as his own body is fit to be entrusted with it.How cautious is the Sage, how sparing of his words! When his task is accomplished and affairs are prosperous, the people all say: “We have come to be as we are, naturally and of ourselves.”Legalism Quote from Han Fei Tzu: When it comes to women, the wise ruler may enjoy them, but should not be drawn into their pleads or submit to their requests. (http://www.sacred-texts.com/tao/salt/salt08.htm, July 26th, 2015)
- LEGALIST QUOTE: In the highest antiquity, the people did not know that they had rulers. In the next age they loved and praised them. In the next, they feared them. In the next, they despised them.
- When it comes to people who are close to him, he enjoys them, but is sure to hold them responsible for what they say, and prevent them from expressing unasked for opinions.
- When it comes to uncles, brothers, and chief vassals, he should punish them when their advice leads to failure, and promote them when their advice leads to success. He should not promote them erratically.
- When it comes to pleasures and the enjoyment of valuable goods, he should have a staff that handles these things, and prohibit anyone from having the freedom to control them. Otherwise, ministers will be able to manipulate the sovereign by knowing his wants.
- When it comes to favors, he should grant them at his own will to use emergency resources and public storehouses, and benefit the people. A minister should never be allowed to give based on his personal favorites.
- When it comes to persuasions and discussions, he must observe and find out people who are considered skillful at something, and verify the lack of skill in those who are considered bad. He should always avoid letting ministers talk to each other about them.
- The wise ruler institutes posts, offices, ranks, and bounties in order to offer a guarantee to promote the worthy and encourage the excellent.
- The sovereign promotes the worthy by examining their abilities, and gives them bounties based on what excellences they have. Thus, worthy people will not hide their abilities in their service to the sovereign, and the excellent people delight in career promotion. And so, aims and advantages are achieved.
- Placing too much value on minor advantages will impede major advantages.(Han Fei Tzu, http://www.rodneyohebsion.com/han-fei-tzu.htm, July 26, 2015)
Option D. The Qin Dynasty (Links to an external site.), though short lived, was important in Chinese history. Please discuss this Dynasty, how it was ruled and its importance, and its accomplishments. Remember to include any relevant information from our text book, podcasts, and websites. Respond to one of your fellow students.
Option E. The Han Dynasty (Links to an external site.) is an extremely important and long Dynasty. The Han witnessed many important events (Links to an external site.) of long-term consequence. Please discuss the rise, expansion, and fall of this Dynasty. Remember to include any relevant information from our text book, podcasts, and websites. Respond to one of your fellow students.Pa
Part 2:chapter two to revisit the Persian Empire and the Hebrews. The Persian Empire was formed by Cyrus the Great. It was one of the largest Empire of the ancient world, cosmopolitan, advanced, and wealthy. We will explore. some thesis statements by scholars about the importance of the religion of the Empire, as well as the importance and “greatness” of two of its Emperors, Cyrus the Great and Darius the Great (two very important historical figures for you to know). We will also learn about causes and effects of important developments, religious or infrastructure, to the Empire. When discussing the Hebrew people, who. develop into the Jewish people, it is important that we recognize the arguments made for their importance to world history 9those thesis statements again :)), which we will read about in our text and the websites. We will also note important people, such as Abraham, whose embrace of the God of the people will cause many effects.
To begin, please read through those sections covering the Persian Empires and the Hebrews in Chapter Two. Then, pick one of the options
Option A: Read these hymns that constitute the central scriptures of Zoroastrianism. The Avesta, sacred scripture, (Links to an external site.)contains the Gathas, which reveal a great deal about this monotheist religion. The Central beliefs (Links to an external site.)and practices of the Zoroastrian people are still important today. What are the central themes and concerns of this religion? How do they compare to the religious texts we have examined from other cultures? What might they tell us about Persian culture? Is there anything distinctly more modern about these texts than others we have read about either for a Discussion Assignment or in our text? You might enjoy watching the optional cc video I have included here for you:
Option B: Discuss the history of the Hebrew people and the development of the Jewish people from their polytheism to monotheism (Links to an external site.) and kingdom building (Links to an external site.)up through the return from the Babylonian Captivity. (Links to an external site.)What would you say was the greatest contribution made by Jewish people to Early World History?
The optional cc video I have included here is an interesting look at the development of the early Kingdom of David of the Israelites:
Option C: Discuss Cyrus the Great (Links to an external site.)and the Persian Empire (Links to an external site.)up through its conquest by Alexander the Great. What do you think earned Cyrus the name “the Great?” What about Darius the Great (Links to an external site.) ? What were his major accomplishments (Links to an external site.)?
The following optional cc video I have included is very good:
This National Geographic, optional, cc video on Persia and Alexander the Great is also interesting; It deals quite a bit with Alexander’s conquest:
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