You must answer four out of five of the short essay questions below. You must complete and submit your examination by the end of Module 8.
(1) Arrigo postulated three key propositions of postmodernism. Explain them in full, using at least 250 words.
(2) Daly and Chesney-Lind considered five insights to be distinctivefeatures of feminist theory? List and describe these features, usingat least 250 words.
(3) Laub and Sampson identify five aspects to the process ofdesistance during adulthood. Identify and briefly explain these fiveaspects, using at least 250 words.
(4) Explain in full the concept of the war on drugs. Based uponwhat you have learned, do you think it was successful? Your answer mustbe at least 250 words in length.
(5) Based upon the various biosocial risk and protective factors youhave studied thus far, define “risk factor” and “protective factor.”Then identify and explain 3 risk factors and 3 protective factors. Youranswer must be at least 250 words in length.
Compose your work in a .doc or .docx file type using a word processor (such as Microsoft Word, etc.)and save it frequently to your computer. For those assignments that arenot written essays and require uploading images or PowerPoint slides,please follow uploading guidelines provided by your instructor.
- Lilly, J.R., Cullen, F.T., & Ball. R. A. (2018). Criminological Theory: Context and Consequences (7th Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA. Sage Publications
- Chapter 16: The Development of Criminals: Life-Course Theories
Module Notes: Life-Course Theories
This module discusses integrated (Links to an external site.) and life course theories (Links to an external site.);those that focus on the peaks and valleys of criminality and combinetheoretical components. It is here that the understanding of how theory,but more importantly, the integration of theories, that evolved overmany different social contexts now significantly contributes to bothbest practice criminal justice policies and early intervention,prevention and treatment programs.
Historically,many criminologists focused on delinquent adolescents when studying andexplaining crime causation. The most apparent reason for this was thatduring these adolescent years, early life course stages correlated withhigh rates of illegal behavior. Although this phenomenon was apparent,however, no truly systematic methodology had been practiced to advancethe many theories regarding adolescents antisocial and criminalbehavior. Consequently, it was the work of the integrated andlife-course or developmental theorists that revealed a significantrevelation: What occurs during early childhood is both correlative andpredictive of criminal behavior during the adolescent years and criminalcareers continuing beyond the adolescence stage.
While most adolescent offenders desist, or stop delinquent behaviorbefore reaching adulthood, the million dollar question is: Which kidspersist and become adult or career offenders? Self-report studies havefound a continuity of antisocial behavior, especially when theantisocial behavior begins in early childhood (Fagan & Wexler,2006). Integrated theories, those that combine major tenets from two ormore theories, attempt to provide a more comprehensive and empiricallyvalid explanation for criminality. Its important, however, that thecombined theories be internally consistent. Longitudinal studies, orthose that follow a cohort over time, reveal many important factors thatinfluence criminality or desistance at the various life stages.
It is probably safe to conclude that the most salient criminologicaltheories at work today are those that combine methodologies andorientations, exploit empirically valid and reliable knowledge, ask newquestions, and take a broad view of crime and criminality. We havelearned a significant amount about the influences of society onindividuals and no longer believe (that is, most of us no longerbelieve) that individuals are creators of their own lives. Instead, wenow know that, while people are born with certain mental and physicalstrengths and weaknesses, they are still born into a family or group at aparticular point in historical time with certain opportunities anddeprivations. All of which combine to create a biography of thatindividual. We understand that the impact of certain deprivationsaffects us differently depending upon our developmental stage in life(Fagan & Wexler, 2006). We also now know that opportunity anddisadvantage are not equally distributed across all social sectors. Inother words, crime is not the result of chance alone. Many factors needto co-occur to result in crime, which subsequently creates a victim.
Finally, the role that research and best practice theories play inevincing profound policy implications and applications in preventingcrime cannot be overemphasized. For example, the importance of earlyintervention programs; parental education programs teaching theimportance of correcting early childhood behavior as part of theirchilds life-course cognitive development.
- FAGAN, J. & WEXLER, S. (1987), FAMILY ORIGINS OF VIOLENTDELINQUENTS. Criminology, 25: 643670.doi: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1987.tb00814.x
- Lilly, J.R., Cullen, F.T., & Ball. R. A. (2015). Criminological Theory: Context and Consequences (6th edition). Thousand Oaks, CA. Sage Publications
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