Question #1 Glucose synthesis(9 Points total)
1a. Please explain why acetyl CoA cannot be used as a precursor for glucose synthesis in animals (2 points).
1b. Plants and some bacteria, however, can convert acetyl CoA into glucose.Please briefly describe how acetyl CoA is converted into glucose (3 points).
1c. How many NET Acetyl CoA, NET ATP, and NET NADH are needed in order to synthesize ONE molecule of glucose from acetyl CoA in plants (3 points)? Count GTP as ATP if GTP is used or produced and count FADH2 as NADH if FADH2 is used or produced in the process of synthesizing glucose.
1c. Although humans cannot synthesize glucose from acetyl CoA, please explain why research on such pathways in plants and bacteria may have an impact on human health (1 point)
Question # 2 (6 Points total)
An experiment is done to measure electron transport and ATP synthesis in isolated mitochondria. Sketch a plot of the hypothetical experimental results if you measure both O2 consumption and ATP synthesis (Left Y-axis for O2 consumption; Right Y-axis for ATP production, overlay both on the same plot.You may use different color or simply indicate the curves) versus time (X-axis). Start the experiment (t = 0) with succinate, ADP, and Pi in the mix and successively add DNP at t = 4 min., then Oligomycin (at t = 8 min.), and cyanide (at t = 12 minutes). Indicate the points in the plot that each agent is added. (6 points)
Question # 3
Thiols play very important roles in metabolism.List at least four thiol-containing molecules we learned in this course (2 points). Please give at least two examples that a high-energy thioester bond is used to synthesize high energy Pi-containing compounds (2 points)
4. Glycogen metabolism
5a. Please describe how the Red glucose residues and the blue glucose residues are metabolized. (2 points)
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