Week 3 Discussion Nutrients
Let’s start this week’s discussion with the definition and comparison of glycogenesis, glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and lipogenesis. Which is (are) likely to be occurring (1) shortly after a carbohydrate-rich meal and (2) just before waking up in the morning?
The process of producing and keeping glucose in the form of glycogen is known as glycogenesis. It happens when blood sugar levels are high, usually following a meal high in carbohydrates. When energy is required, glycogen is easily converted back to glucose and is mostly stored in the liver and skeletal muscles.
Glycogenolysis is the breakdown of glycogen into glucose molecules. When blood glucose levels fall and energy needs rise, it is stimulated. In order to maintain blood glucose levels and supply the body with fuel, glycogenolysis largely takes place in the liver and skeletal muscles (Chung et al, 2015).
The process that generates glucose from non-carbohydrate sources, such as amino acids and glycerol, is known as glucoseneogenesis. The liver and kidneys experience it the most, respectively. In order to keep blood glucose levels stable, gluconeogenesis is triggered during periods of fasting, intense activity, or limited carbohydrate availability.
Lipogenesis is the process of producing fatty acids and triglycerides from extra glucose or other foods. It usually occurs in adipose tissue and the liver. When there are too many calories or carbs, lipogenesis is triggered, which causes the body to store fat as a form of energy.
Occurrence shortly after consuming a carboydrate-rich meal and just before waking up in the morning.
Blood glucose levels rise after eating a meal high in carbohydrates. Glycogenesis is expected to take place in reaction to the high blood sugar, with more glucose being processed and stored as glycogen in the muscles and liver for future energy requirements.
Immediately before awakening in the morning: Blood glucose levels fall during the overnight fast as the body uses glycogen reserves for energy. Glycogen reserves may be depleted in the early morning, causing a drop in blood glucose levels. Glycogenolysis would be triggered to convert stored glycogen into glucose for energy in order to maintain blood glucose homeostasis. Additionally, to maintain blood glucose levels, gluconeogenesis may produce glucose from non-carbohydrate sources.
It’s very important to remember that lipogenesis is less likely to happen just after a meal high in carbohydrates or right before waking up in the morning because it’s usually linked to excessive calorie intake and a high level of energy rather than particular meal or fasting times.
Chung, S. T., Chacko, S., Sunehag, A. L., & Haymond, M. W. (2015). Measurements of Gluconeogenesis and Glycogenolysis: A Methodological Review. Diabetes, 64(12), 3996?4010. https://doi.org/10.2337/db15-0640
Saladin, K. S. (2020). Anatomy & Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function (9th ed.). McGraw-Hill Higher Education (US). https://ambassadored.vitalsource.com/books/9781260791563Links to an external site.Links to an external site.
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